Cultural methods Crop rotation: Crop rotation with non-host will help to control some of the pathogens. Ahrar wilt Fusarium oxysporum f.
All three of these will be explained in brief. Biological control using natural predators or parasites macrobials Biological control is no fad. In China in the fourth century B. The usefulness of parasites was discovered much later. Most parasites are insects, such as parasitic wasps Encarsia formosawhich during the egg, larva and pupa stages live in or on a host.
The complicated life cycle of these insects was first described in the early 18th century by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
However, it would be many years before their potential use in pest control was discovered. InErasmus Darwin, the father of Charles Darwin, wrote an essay on the useful role that parasites and predators may play in combating pests and diseases.
Biological control assumes that natural predators or parasites are able to suppress pests. Initially, therefore, natural enemies were imported to control the pests.
These natural predators were released in small numbers, but once they became established they were effective in the long term.
This method is also called inoculation. When the natural predator is introduced periodically, it is known as inundation. There are two groups of beneficial macrobial organisms: Parasites are organisms that live at the expense of another organism, such as the larvae of parasitic wasps, which live in the larva of whitefly and eat them from the inside.
Predators are organisms that simply prey on other organisms for food, such as ladybirds, which eat aphids. Some examples of commonly used macrobials are; Phytoseiulus persimilis against the red spider mite, Encarsia formosa against whitefly and Neioseiulus cucumeris against thrips.
Biological control using micro-organisms microbials Several beneficial micro-organisms can also be used to improve plant health and control pests and diseases. Bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms can have these effects because they compete for nutrients or space, they produce antibiotics or they simply eat other harmful micro-organisms.
Microbials can also be used preventively because they can make the plants healthier and stronger. When this happens, plants are not attacked by pests or diseases or are affected less by them. This kind of pest control is not visible. Some examples of commonly used microbials are; Trichoderma and Bacillus subtilis.
This is a coloured scanning electron micrograph SEM of Bacillus subtilis; a commonly used microbial.Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content.
Start of Search Controls. Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods. Insecticides and repellent products should always be used with. For plant disease control, chemicals are a critical element in effective integrated pest management (IPM) programs.
Chemical control began with the introduction of lime sulfur. Plant protection products and their rate of use To enlarge the image click here To test the elicitation response and the level of disease resistance, plants were treated at the leaf stage with ISR ™, fungicides and bactericides or just water (control).
Biorational is an undefined term used in broad reference to any biologically-based product used in agriculture that includes fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, and various other products. LIST OF PLANT DISEASE CONTROL CHEMICALS BY TRADE.
APPENDIX AAPPENDIX ALIST OF PLANT DISEASE CONTROL CHEMICALSBY TRADE NAMETrade NameAboundAcceleronAcrobat WPAcrobat MZ; Acrobat MZActive IngredientazoxystrobinBacillus subtilis MBIdimethomorphdimethomorph and mancozebActinovate SP Streptomyces lydicus strain WYEC .
The company recommends that dimethomorph is not used alone in disease control programmes to delay the onset of resistance.
Crops should be treated with combination products, tank mixes or in sequence with other products, e.g. mancozeb.