As the absolute rule of kings weakened, Enlightenment philosophers argued for different forms of democracy.
He appeared as an expert witness on cyberculture in Shea v. Reno, a case cited in the U. Supreme Court 's decision to strike down the Communications Decency Act in Kennedy School of Government  instructing a course titled: He uses the phrase "the Internet runs on love" to describe the nature of such collaborations.
Shirky asserts that collaborative crowdsourced work results from "a successful fusion of a plausible promise, an effective tool, and an acceptable bargain with the users. Collaborators will then choose the best social networking tool to do the job.
One that "must be designed to fit the job being done, and it must help people do something they actually want to do.
He points to four key steps.
This type of sharing is a reverse of the so-called old order of sharing, where participants congregate first and then share examples include Flickrand Delicious.
The second is conversation, that is, the synchronization of people with each other and the coming together to learn more about something and to get better at it. The third is collaboration, in which a group forms under the purpose of some common effort.
It requires a division of labor, and teamwork. It can often be characterized by people wanting to fix a market failure, and is motivated by increasing accessibility. Shirky also introduces his theory of mass amateurization: Our social tools remove older obstacles to public expression, and thus remove the bottlenecks that characterized mass media.
The result is the mass amateurization of efforts previously reserved for media professionals. Combined with the lowering of transaction costs associated with creating content, mass amateurization of publishing changes the question from "Why publish this?
Shirky calls this mass amateurization of filtering a forced move. He uses the Portland Pattern Repositorywhich introduced the wiki concept that inspired Wikipedia, as an example of this new marriage of mass content creation and mass filtering.
The book follows concepts he introduced in a Web 2. Technology has turned many past consumers into producers. This new production capacity, combined with humanity's willingness to share, can change society if applied to civic endeavors. Shirky compares the coordination costs between groups formed under traditional institutions and those formed by groups which "build cooperation into the infrastructure.
Companies like Flickrhowever, having built "cooperation into the infrastructure" of their company, do not have to build massive infrastructure nor exclude large groups of potential contributors. The cooperative infrastructure model escapes having to lose this resource. Shirky presents an institution as enabler and institution as obstacle concept.
The relatively small number of high-volume contributors can be assimilated, as employees, into the old-style corporate model and thus can live in an "institution-as-enabler world".
The long tail of contributors, however, who make few and infrequent contributions, see institutions as an obstacle as they would never have been hired, therefore, disenfranchised. Shirky argues that an idea or contribution may be infrequent and significant.
Furthermore, all of the long tail contributors, taken in aggregate, can be substantial. One pitfall of the "mass amateurs" creating their own groups is that not all niches that are filled will be positive ones; Shirky presents pro-ana groups as an example.
Shirky closes by stating that the migration from institutions to self-organizing, collaborative groups will be incomplete and will not end in a utopian society. Rather, chaos will follow as was created by the advent of the printing press before it, and that this period of transition will last roughly fifty years.
Shirky claims that our actions and behavior are generated by convenience. Writer and analyst Megan Garber writes: Not because bigger is implicitly better than the alternative compact, but because abundance changes the value proposition of media as a resource.
Further, enhancing the outcome of collaboration will instill motivation within the users. In the past, communication to a large group excluded the possibility of having a conversation, and having a conversation meant not interacting with a group and instead was necessarily a one-to-one structure.
Shirky labels this incongruous exchange as asymmetric. In Shirky's view, this feature is one of the main reasons that the internet revolution is different from communication revolutions that preceded it.
This means that the Internet now encapsulates all forms of media from the past and the medium itself has become the site of exchange, not just a means of exchange. Finally, the Internet allows people to create content, thus the line between producers and consumers has become blurred.
As Shirky puts it, "Every time a new consumer joins this media landscape, a new producer joins as well. The populace as a whole, Shirky claims, is a force much harder to control than a handful of professional news sources.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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