Early American writers first had to ensure their own survival before they could think about writing for entertainment. These early writings were more about keeping historical records than of creating something with literary value, so these works would be narratives, descriptions, observations, reports, journals, and histories. We need to be mindful of this when reading them in this current day.
Her portrayal is in three parts: I shall call the first one the Prologue and the second the Preamble to avoid confusion. Some critics have claimed that Chaucer intended several of the tales to form a "marriage group" to create a discussion on marriage within the work as a whole: In many ways the Preamble is a tale in itself: Some critics have seen a disparity between this out-spoken, sometimes coarse, commonsensical discourse and the fairy tale which follows.
Yet the two are united by the theme of what women want. She makes it clear that they desire "maistrie" or mastery in the sense of dominance over men. The Preamble is notable for: She is likeable despite her cynicism and rough dealings with her old, rich husbands and we are aware that she truly loved Janekin with his curly gold hair and shapely legs.
Chaucer seems affectionate in his portrayal of the wife, probably because she is not a hypocrite, whilst showing her garrulousness, contradictions, lack of self-control and complete failure to realise the impression she is making on her audiences: There are two women described in the General Prologue: Alison we learn later.
Immediately she is introduced as being slightly deaf which turns out to be a metaphorical as well as a literal attribute, hinted at in Chaucer's falsely naif comment: The "coverchiefs" which she wears on her head on Sundays weigh ten pounds and are made of fine cloth: Her red stockings signify boldness and are tightly laced to show off her legs but her shoes are of excellent quality and new.
Chaucer, the narrator, plays the role of the innocent commentator who contents himself with the bland remark: Juxtaposition is one of Chaucer's main ironic techniques: To be gap-toothed is the mark of a traveller but also an emblem of lasciviousness and, possibly, gluttony.
Her hat is as broad as a buckler or targe [shield], a military reference following the sexual ones which marks her as from Mars as well as Venus.
The fact she wears spurs adds a masculine quality but her love of talk and gossip is, perhaps, more female in Medieval eyes. An expert in remedies of love she knows all the rituals of sexuality: Yet this is also a reference to Ovid's Remedia Amoris, thus suggesting that the Wife has taken her learning from literature as well as life.
The Wife's Preamble Only the Pardoner, who makes his living out of speaking in public, has a lengthy introduction to his story, over a hundred lines, whereas the Wife's is over There were, current at the times, accepted devices of rhetoric rules of speaking or forming a written discourse which the Wife ignores or misuses just as she abuses changes of register from the high-flown to the colloquial or obscene.
Her first words are: Yet, in order to justify her numerous weddings, she immediately refers to the Bible, although she fails to make good use of these exempla' [examples] by interrupting herself with questions and then making the rather absurd claim that she did it all because God ordered people to "wexe and multiply", adding that Christ never stated the optimum number of marriages.
She always cherry-picks the texts with which she agrees: Her tone renders her material comic as she talks as if God and Christ had spoken to her directly in friendly fashion.
Some authorities are named but others wasted as she calls them, vaguely, "many another holy man". To use examples effectively they must be precise. She is particularly virulent against virginity but this is not the opposite of multiple marriages and shows her illogicality, defensiveness and personal dislike of St.
We note that no-one has yet accused her of ill-doing but she pre-empts criticism and assumes that her opinion on anything is worth hearing. Her speech is full of 'fillers' such as "eek well", expressions which are largely meaningless.
In the first hundred lines she has proved herself energetically out-spoken but undiscriminating, mentally chaotic and obsessed with self-justification.
Note that in Chaucer's English the two negatives, "nil" and "nat" do not cancel each other out; they merely stress what is being said.
She is more convincing when she uses homely examples: Again, unaware of the impression she is creating, she announces that she is not one who wishes to live perfectly - as if the audience had not realised.
When she promises to bestow the "flour of al myn age" in the acts of marriage she manages to make it seem more of a threat than an attraction and it must be remembered that some of the other pilgrims are Church people who might be scandalised, particularly when she proceeds to a discussion about the function of the human genitalia.
Chaucer ensures that we do not overlook the fact she may have pure-minded folk amongst her listeners when he has her turn to them and ask for agreement: As if we did not already know she proclaims: This is the rhetorical device of circumlocutio [saying something by roundabout means] usually employed in a higher register.
Her attitudes to her husbands are revealed in lines ff: Paul has ordered her to do this in person. Perhaps it is this assumption of a direct line to the Apostles that unnerves the Pardoner, whose livelihood depends on the pious appealing to him for salvation, and he interrupts - but is quickly put back in his place.The most commonly used patterns of organization are described below.
Chronological Patterns. A chronological pattern of organization arranges information according to a progression of time, either forward or backward.
When a topic is best understood in terms of different segments of time, a chronological format works well. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review Sandeep Kular, Mark Gatenby, Chris Rees, Emma Soane, Katie Truss paucity of critical academic literature on the subject, and relatively little is known about how This literature survey examined peer-reviewed journal articles, working papers, textbooks.
Today, in the era of social media, relationships in many families have changed, since social media affects these relationships in a number of unexpected and sometimes negative ways.
Looking from an optimistic perspective, children and parents have gained a powerful tool of communication. Modernist literature often conveys fragmentation through abrupt shifts in perspective, voice, and tone and through a reliance on sometimes obscure symbols .
A literary analysis essay develops an opinion or point of view about an idea that is contained in another literary work. This idea is usually conveyed by the writer in the title of the article and could be something like “Milton’s Eve Is the Pivotal Character and Heroine of Paradise Lost.”.
If you choose a clear, recognizable pattern (on the level of the single paragraph, and also on the level of the whole essay body), you guide yourself in selecting details and choosing transitions, and you also guide your reader in discovering relationships that connect .