After immigrating to the United States with his family he attended school at Brigham Young University — Idaho where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Microbiology. He also focused on the areas of Criminology and Spanish while obtaining his degree.
Scientific racism Alfred Binet —inventor of the first intelligence test. Claims of races having different intelligence were used to justify colonialismslaveryracismsocial Darwinismand racial eugenics.
Racial thinkers such as Arthur de Gobineau relied crucially on the assumption that black people were innately inferior to whites in developing their ideologies of white supremacy. Even enlightenment thinkers such as Thomas Jeffersona slave owner, believed blacks to be innately inferior to whites in physique and intellect.
Binet warned that results from his test should not be assumed to measure innate intelligence or used to label individuals permanently. Different immigrant nationalities were sometimes thought to belong to different races, such as Slavs.
A different set of tests developed by Robert Yerkes were used to evaluate draftees for World War I, and researchers found that people from southern and eastern Europe scored lower than native-born Americans, that Americans from northern states had higher scores than Americans from southern states, and that Black Americans scored lower than white Americans.
In his influential work A Study of American Intelligence psychologist Carl Brigham used the results of the Army tests to argue for a stricter immigration policy, limiting immigration to countries considered to belong to the "nordic race".
On the other hand, many scientists reacted to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry. They pointed to the contribution of environment to test results such as speaking English as a second language.
Jensenism As the de-segregation of the American South was begun in the s the debate about black intelligence resurfaced.
This study was used by segregationists as an argument that it was to the advantage of black children to be educated separately from the superior white children.
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The Bell Curve debate Another revival of public debate followed the appearance of The Bell Curvea book by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murraywho strongly emphasized the societal effects of low IQ focusing in most chapters strictly on the non-Hispanic white population of the United States.
Knowns and Unknowns ", acknowledging a difference between mean IQ scores of whites and blacks as well as the absence of any adequate explanation of it, either environmental or genetic. The Bell Curve prompted the publication of several multiple-author books responding from a variety of points of view.
The Science of Mental Ability was published a few years later in Why Schools and Cultures Count Intelligence quotient and Intelligence The concept of intelligence and the degree to which intelligence is measurable is a matter of debate.
While there is some consensus about how to define intelligence, it is not universally accepted that it is something that can be unequivocally measured by a single figure. Arthur Jensen was a proponent of the view that there is a correlation between scores on all the known types of IQ tests and that this correlation points to an underlying factor of general intelligenceor g.
In most conceptions of g it is considered to be fairly fixed in a given individual and unresponsive to training or other environmental influences.
In this view test score differences, especially in those tasks considered to be particularly "g-loaded" reflect the test takers innate capability. Other psychometricians argue that, while there may or may not be a general intelligence factor, performance on tests rely crucially on knowledge acquired through prior exposure to the types of tasks that such tests contain.
This view would mean that tests cannot be expected to reflect only the innate abilities of a given individual, because the expression of potential will always be mediated by experience and cognitive habits.
It also means that comparison of test scores from persons with widely different life experiences and cognitive habits is not an expression of their relative innate potentials.
Race classification of humans and Race and genetics The majority of anthropologists today consider race to be a sociopolitical phenomenon rather than a biological one,  a view supported by considerable genetics research. The official position of the AAA, adopted inis that advances in scientific knowledge have made it "clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups" and that "any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations [is] both arbitrary and subjective.
With current methods of genetic analysis it is possible to determine the composition of genetic ancestry of an individual with significant precision.
This is because different genes occur with different frequencies in different geographically defined populations, and by correlating a large amount of genes through cluster analysis it is probable to determine with high likelihood the geographic origins of an individual through DNA.
Race in studies of human intelligence is almost always determined using self-reports, rather than based on analyses of the genetic characteristics of the tested individuals.
According to psychologist David Rowe, self-report is the preferred method for racial classification in studies of racial differences because classification based on genetic markers alone ignore the "cultural, behavioral, sociological, psychological, and epidemiological variables" that distinguish racial groups.
Loring Brace  and geneticist Joseph Graves disagree with the idea that cluster analysis and the correlation between self-reported race and genetic ancestry support biological race. The cluster structure of the genetic data is dependent on the initial hypotheses of the researcher and the populations sampled.
When one samples continental groups, the clusters become continental; if one had chosen other sampling patterns, the clusters would be different.
Kaplan therefore concludes that, while differences in particular allele frequencies can be used to identify populations that loosely correspond to the racial categories common in Western social discourse, the differences are of no more biological significance than the differences found between any human populations e.
Hunt agrees that racial categories are defined by social conventions, though he points out that they also correlate with clusters of both genetic traits and cultural traits.
Hunt explains that, due to this, racial IQ differences are caused by these variables that correlate with race, and race itself is rarely a causal variable. Researchers who study racial disparities in test scores are studying the relationship between the scores and the many race-related factors which could potentially affect performance.
These factors include health, wealth, biological differences, and education. It remains unclear whether group differences in intelligence test scores are caused by heritable factors or by "other correlated demographic variables such as socioeconomic status, education leveland motivation.
The first is that these reflect real differences in average group intelligence, which is caused by a combination of environmental factors and heritable differences in brain function. A third position holds that differences in average cognitive ability between races do not exist, and that the differences in average test scores are the result of inappropriate use of the tests themselves.
Finally, a fourth position is that either or both of the concepts of race and general intelligence are poorly constructed and therefore any comparisons between races are meaningless.AP® Biology Scoring Guidelines. The College Board.
The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and. In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population..
Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or % per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in to billion in It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the .
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
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